From Unclear2Nuclear


     Model Introduction

This treatise will introduce you to a complete set of stable nuclei from hydrogen to bismuth, and then you will step out into the uranium island and beyond. So join us, there is a lot to study and learn.

You will find that the many mystifying paradoxical aspects of the nucleus are answered via self-generating facets of the model presented here.

So as previously stated,
The "ah ha" moment came with the realization that protons and neutron were each composed of three charged particles! Three particles, no matter how you arrange them, form a flat triangle!

Proton

Neutron

Proton -> constructed with blue struts
Neutron -> constructed with white struts

The “ZOME” models show the quarks comprising the proton and neutron.

  • The black nodes represent up quarks.
  • The white nodes represent down quarks.
  • The nodes connected with blue struts represent protons.
  • The nodes connected with white struts represent neutrons.

In other “ZOME” models shown on this page the yellow and red struts used represent the electrical cross connections of the quarks that exist between protons and neutrons.

The positive and negative charges of the quarks in two protons and two neutrons combine to form flattened six sided particles that are balanced and neutral in all aspects except charge, the alpha particle.

This changes the perspective of the alpha particle from a tetrahedron where all the nucleons are equal distance or nearest neighbors, to where the nucleons are in a plane which makes opposite types nucleons nearest neighbors and like types of nucleons are second nearest neighbors.

Alpha particle

Combine three alpha particles
to form the Carbon12 ring.

Alpha particle - Hexagonal Model
Carbon 12 - Hexagonal Model

These two structures, the alpha particle and the carbon ring, dominant the structure of the nucleus.

As the nucleus grows two things will become very obvious.

  • First, like nucleons are never nearest neighbors in the nucleus.
  • Second, any four adjacent nucleons anywhere in the nucleus always consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons and are always in the configuration of an alpha particle.

Before following the progression of the nucleus in detail, a quick over view is presented here of the five major stages that occur in nuclei along the valley of stability during the building of the nuclear structural lattice. The following models represent the form the nucleus attains at the end of each nuclear stage. These models are shown as ZOME constructs.


Three of the carbon rings stacked form “The Core” of the nucleus. There are semi-completion stages or steps in building of the core. The first step is the carbon12 ring. The second step is the completion of the second carbon12 ring to form magnesium24. The third step is the completion of the third carbon12 ring to form argon36. “The Core” stage is complete with the nucleus of argon36 shown below.

The completed nuclear 'CORE' stage
             Hexagonal Model

Add neutrons and protons to the out side of the core and “The Star” is formed. All of the columns developing for the Star along the outside of the core are capped with neutrons on both ends, which is how the neutrons help hold the nucleus together against the building positive charge. Thus these star points or columns are only five nucleons high while the core is six nucleons high. “The Star” stage is completed with the nucleus of zinc66 and is shown below

The completed nuclear 'STAR' stage
             Hexagonal Model

The next phase is the Core extension I phase which occurs in two steps. The first step adds a three proton and three neutron extension on the ends of the core. The second step also adds another layer of three protons and three neutrons to further lengthen the core. The Core Extension I phases are complete with molebdenium96 which is shown below.

The completed nuclear 'Core Extension' stage 
             Hexagonal Model

Fill in the gaps between the spikes of the star with alphas and the “The Loops” are formed. The loops are six carbon rings inter-fingered with each other and the carbon rings of the core. The first loop is completed with krypton84. The second loop is completed with molybdenum98. The third loop is completed with xenon132. The fourth or last loop of this stage is completed with neodynium149. Again, the ends of every column still provide sufficient locations for every extra neutron in the nucleus. At the end of this stage even the columns forming the core are capped by neutron. “The Loops” stage is completed with formation of the nucleus of neodymium149.

The completed nuclear 'LOOPS' stage
             Hexagonal Model

With the completion of the loops the positive charge has built to the point that some relief is needed from the building positive charge, so the next layer on each end of the nucleus forms with protons located only in an extension of the core. There are no protons located in the outer loops where they would normally also be found. There are only neutrons in their expected locations in these outer loops. These gaps or lack of protons in these outer loops results in “The Voids” structural stages of the nucleus. “The Voids” stage essentially involves all nucleus heaver than neodymium. The gaps occur at the proton positions in the star radial extension to the core. “"The Voids"“ can be seen as gaps or voids in the lattice, which are visible in the next two pictures.


The nuclear 'Extension II' stage
             Hexagonal Model

An intermediate stage is defined following the loops and the voids to bismuth209 that could be called “The Caps” These caps are extensions of the core beyond the level of the loops.


The nuclear 'VOIDS' stage
             Hexagonal Model

The last stage of nuclear structure is “The Island” and “The Drift” named because although there are no stable nuclei in this region, a few long-lived nuclei do exist. The length of half-lives of the nuclei beyond the voids depends on how forces and balance of these very large nuclei is reached. The ?center? most stable nuclei in the island is marked by its longest lived member, uranium238.

“The Island” stage reaches completion with 96 protons and ___ neutrons, which is the element curium.


“The Drift” would probably be complete with 114 protons and 174 neutrons, which would make element Ununquadium288. If this stage follows what happens at the end of the other stages the most stable nucleus should be one or two proton less than 114 or about 112 protons and 172 neutrons for Ununbium284

The nuclear 'DRIFT' stage - Hexagonal Model
            'Caps' continue to grow
      nuclei become increasingly unstable

But where is “The End”?

Is it at z = 122 or 124 which have recently been found in deposits containing thorium? This model indicates more instability with heavier elements. Even so the model also indicates that elements with 122 or 124 protons and also with an even number of neutrons will always be the most stable isotopes for an element.


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